Ethnicity affects young people's experience of relatedness and belonging. Navigating racial decrimination. More opportunities to connect to ethnic identity makes youth less likely to be depressed, whereas less opportunities to connect to ethnic identity makes youth more likely to be depressed.


Family cultural norms about decision-making affect young people’s experience of autonomy. Too little or too much autonomy may be detrimental to mental health.

Belonging and supportive relationships are important for all youth, but may be more important for ethnic minority youth.

Different competences may be more important in some cultures than in others. Cultural competence that includes valuing diversity is related to thriving for all youth, but may be especially important for white youth.

Questions to consider: How can our program address or work around barriers that may prevent youth from self-determination (for example discrimination, poverty, racism, sexism, homophobia, transphobia, ableism, or ageism)? How can our program provide/encourage positive role models that reflect the diversity of youth in our program? How can our program build cultural competence, valuing diversity, and skills to understand the impact of racism (and homophobia, transphobia, ableism, sexism)?